If you’re unfamiliar with the acronym “ADC”, you’re not alone. Many other pharmacies use this technology, as well. But what exactly does ADC stand for in pharmacy? Read on to learn more. In addition to being a convenient shortcut for patients, ADC is also a valuable way to improve patient safety, as well as efficiency. In addition to improving patient safety, ADCs improve pharmacy operations by reducing staff workload.
ADC Stands For : Analogue to Digital Converter
An ADC transforms an analog signal from continuous time and continuous amplitude to discrete time and discrete amplitude. Since the conversion involves quantizing the input, some error or noise is unavoidably added. Additionally, an ADC limits the allowable bandwidth of the input signal by performing the conversion periodically rather than continuously while sampling the input.
The bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio of an ADC primarily define its performance. An ADC’s sampling rate primarily determines its bandwidth. The resolution, linearity, accuracy (how closely the quantization levels match the actual analog signal), aliasing, and jitter are just a few of the variables that affect an ADC’s SNR. The effective number of bits (ENOB), or the proportion of each measure’s bits that are typically noise-free, is a common way to express an ADC’s SNR. An ENOB that is equal to the resolution of the ADC is ideal. ADCs are selected to match the bandwidth and necessary SNR of the digitized signal. The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem states that perfect reconstruction is feasible if an ADC runs at a sampling rate greater than twice the signal’s bandwidth. Even a perfect ADC’s SNR is constrained by the presence of quantization error. However, its effects may be disregarded if the SNR of the ADC is higher than that of the input signal, producing a nearly flawless digital representation of the analog input signal. “NVR Full Form”
ADCs can provide filtered lists of physicians’ orders, based on various parameters, and may allow for overriding. An example is an override for NMBA, which warns pharmacists to re-move the medication from an ADC. Whether an ADC is set to prevent over-dispensing or not, it must have a standardized format for staff training.
ADCs have been introduced in hospital medication use systems for many years, and have become one of the most widely used forms of technology. Initially, ADCs were designed to serve as an automated unit stock system that allowed for charge capture and automatic replenishment. Previously, ADCs had many limitations, including the fact that a large number of medications were stored in matrix drawers, making them accessible to practitioners without pharmacist review. But advancements in workflow processes have made ADCs safe for use in other settings, including outpatient care.
In a recent study, Kaiser Permanente Vacaville, California, implemented an optimization process of automated dispensing cabinets. This process improved overall efficiency, improved stockout percentages, and increased number of medications stocked in ADCs. It also improved the number of medications dispensed daily. This optimization process has the potential to lead to significant improvements in key performance indicators, as well as help identify gaps in knowledge.
The nurse misinterpreted the label information and inserted 10 mg of calcium gluconate into the patient’s IV. However, the physician’s decimal point was barely visible, and the trailing zero meant that the nurse had no idea how much the medication was. If the ADC had been profiled, the pharmacist would have instructed the nurse to remove one ampule of colchicine. But because the ADCs weren’t profiled to the pharmacy computer, the patient had no idea that the doctor had given her the correct dosage.
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